Photography Through Inspiration and Exploration


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An ongoing series of informative entries.

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October 04, 2022


When something catches your eye and calls out to you to create a photograph, your subconscious has already identified a story element. That’s why you have an interest in capturing whatever it is that you’re looking at. Step one is accomplished. Some story is there.

You want to communicate a message from your mind out to viewers of your photograph – that decision puts your photographic process into the loosely defined category of storytelling. Now it becomes a three-part process.

Step two, you must figure out what it is you’re trying to say with your photograph. That’s called developing the story.

Thirdly, you must make the technical choices to transform the story into the photographic medium. That’s being a photographer and not simply a snap shooter.

That’s something to keep in mind when you are photographing and want your photo to tell a story.  Storytelling is the single biggest photographic skill, that you can learn, that will make your work stand out from everyone else.

How will storytelling make your work stand out?

No one else has lived your life experience, and that creates your unique impression of everything around you.  Do you know why storytelling will make your photographs better?

Here it is…

Storytelling touches on all of the memory retention buttons within the human brain.

It’s basic psychology.

Here’s something to think about when you’re about to create a photograph- Even a slight change could turn that image from something “normal” and “not memorable”

...Into an image that is an unforgettable storytelling effort.

…Something truly special, that has a lasting impact on the viewer.

in order to become a great photographic storyteller- it takes more than having a few composition tips in your pocket.

In order to become a great storyteller- you need to understand the building blocks of what makes a great story...

A professional-level photograph consists of three components: technically sound (although a quality photo doesn’t always have to be technically perfect); an organized composition (without that your photograph is a lazy mess, and a viewer feels that… even subconsciously); and most importantly, the photograph must convey a message to the viewer, which is ‘the story’.

Storytelling photography takes effort. I won’t lie to you. The good news is- You CAN learn this skill!  The more you practice what you will learn, the better you will become at it.  Eventually, it will become second nature- like riding a bicycle… You’ll be shooting storytelling photos without even realizing that you’re doing it!

We all have a story to tell.

There are things from the past that influence the way we feel… There are current events that are shaping our lives right now.  And then, there are the future moments we haven’t yet lived.  Utilizing all of that life experience into your photographic efforts will truly improve your work, make your images memorable to others, and most importantly- the images that you create will hold greater value to you-The Photographer!

Our Latest Blog Entry

September 06, 2022


Believe in letting your mind wander - like an explorer charting an unknown land, and in cultivating a child-like sense of wonder.

When we are small we can see magic in the world.  As we grow up we learn to rationalize things; to label, to sort and explain...

Too often we forget that understanding somethings and feeling the sense of wonder about it are not mutually exclusive.

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June 01, 2022


One of the most common questions photo-artists get asked is also perhaps the hardest to answer: “where do you get your ideas?”

I suppose the answer needn’t be that complicated, because the best answer is probably closest to the real answer: “Gosh! Who knows?”

The truth is, photo-artists draw from so many sources that in the end the subconscious takes over, the muse steps in, and there’s just no telling anymore.

Ultimately artists draw their inspiration from books, films, music, from the photographers they themselves study and admire, from long walks, chance, reflections or various notes scribbled and sketched in journals.

Then, often as not, the mansions of their imagination stuffed to bursting, they simply take up a photo that captures their fancy and allow it to carry where it might.  Sitting down to their work, the world falls away. A few hours later they look around themselves, give a shake of the head, and are a s astonished to find what they’ve created as we are when we see it, beautiful and grand, in all its polish and glory.

Fact is, by immersing themselves in living rich artistic lives – by training themselves to see and think like artists and then putting in the work to master their art – the artist awakens to what their muses have to whisper in their ears, and learn to trust what they hear.

In the end, somehow, in some way, great art then just happens.

Our Latest Blog Entry

May 01, 2022


Finishing a piece of work really is a commitment. It’s the photographer or artist taking a stand. It’s signing the piece and laying aside your canvas. It’s putting yourself out there, and accepting the world’s verdict.

And that takes bravery.

It’s so easy to leave work unfinished – because it’s safe that way. A “work in progress” is safe, because it still has the potential to become something great.

But if all of your work remains “in progress” – basically forever – what’s the point?

Our Latest Blog Entry

April 01, 2022


Artistry is not always a comfortable ride. Sure, many come to the artistic life out of simple joy, out of some pure delight in learning to create something amazing.  But others come to art for a reprieve from suffering, or for healing, or for catharsis. Too often artists have precious little support from friends and family, and too often there is something painful in their day-to-day lives so they turn to their art to rest from this for a while.

There’s something extraordinary in the creative act – in tapping into your imagination and stepping outside of your daily problems, worries and concerns – and that state of wonder and release frequently fuels the most powerful work.  Not that you would ever know it.  But that impassioned reach for meaning and freedom and importance inspires more artwork than you might think. Often, it’s an impassioned endeavor precisely because “real life” can be so damned hard.

There are artists who suffer from chronic illness, from depression, from crushing ailments of all kinds.  There are artists who have lost loved ones – friends, parents, even children.  There are artists who grieve over the loss of dear pets that felt like family to them and might as well have been.  There are artists who have lost their jobs, artists trapped in awful relationships, artists struggling with addictions, and those dealing with families that are falling apart.

Yet through this…they create – they fight on.

They find something beautiful and important, a voice of their own, a voice deficient of suffering and loss… and from that place, inspite of everything life throws at them, they create art.

They create, and they leave their mark on this world, and that both inspires and humbles me.

Our Latest Blog Entry

February 28, 2022

Memory is Complex

Many decades of research in psychology have shown that memory is a very complex mental activity – far too complex to summarize here. Concerning what photos we remember or forget, there are a variety of questions to consider:

  • Does skill level and experience as a photographer affect one’s memory of a shoot?
  • Might there be differences in recalled versus forgotten images among various types of photography, for example: street, nature, event, portrait, and therapeutic photography?
  • Does your personality style and life experiences influence what you remember and what you forget? (e.g., differences in stress, busyness, introspectiveness, the ability to concentrate, or the tendency to repress feelings)
  • Is the order in which people remember photos from a shoot significant?
  • Does the “instructional set” for a shoot affect one’s memory of it – e.g., “take pictures of anything” versus “take pictures of things that are very emotional for you.”
  • How does the ability to review images in camera LCD screens affect what we remember and what we forget.
  • How would the recall of photos be affected by the number of shots taken, the amount of time spent on the shoot, and the amount of time between the shoot and when the person is asked to recall the photos (the longer the interval of time, the more life experiences during that interval might affect memory).

Remembering and forgetting is not an either/or phenomenon. We forget, suppress, and repress in varying degrees. The more time you spend reflecting on a shoot, the more you discuss it with other people, and the kinds of practical and psychological questions they ask you about it, might all determine what you will be able to recall.

We might never pinpoint all the factors that determine what shots we remember and which ones we forget. An image that you fancy for a while in your memory could very well fade away over time. A photo that you didn’t think too much of at first could eventually become fixed in your mind for a lifetime. In both cases, you might never fully understand why.

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Photos Remembered and Forgotten

February 05, 2022

After you take a series of photographs – during what we photographers call a “shoot” – some of those pictures you’ll definitely remember later on. You’ll also forget some or maybe many of them. Did you ever wonder why some shots stand out in your memory while others elude it?

It’s all about feelings

The first finding is one that psychologists have long known about memory in general. EMOTIONS determine what we remember and what we “forget.” If an event in our lives doesn’t generate any particular emotion, it’s not a very powerful candidate for being recalled later on. However, the fascinating thing about emotions, especially strong ones, is that they might result in an event becoming forever burned into our memory, or they might be forgotten - “suppressed” or “repressed” some psychologists would say - BECAUSE they are so powerful.

These principles hold true for photography. If you take a shot of something that catches your eye – maybe the subject involves a pleasing colour or composition – you might not remember it later on it if it generated very little emotion.

But if people need to suppress or repress the memory of photos that create upsetting feelings, why do they take those shots in the first place? Wouldn’t they consciously or unconsciously want to overlook those scenes?

It's therapeutic

Here enters what people call “therapeutic photography.” It is a well-known fact among psychotherapists, as well as photographers who use their camera as a tool for personal insight and growth, that taking shots of upsetting subjects might help you become more aware of and master the various feelings associated with those things.

Some people might recall photos of negative situations if they have remedied that situation, or if they have begun to do so.

Premeditation and Spontaneity

You’re only going to spend a lot of energy on a shot that is meaningful to you, so your remembering that photo later on has been charged by two factors: premeditated effort AND the emotional motivation that drove it.

The Balance Between Mindfulness & Concentration

October 04, 2021

 Mindfulness is a process of opening up and detecting something new, like highly sensitive peripheral vision. Concentration, on the other hand, is a one-pointed awareness that zooms in to focus on an object, like a laser. In photography, the two work as partners to balance each other. In the state of mindful awareness, you notice something in your field of view. Then, using the powers of concentration, you consciously direct your awareness to it, sink into and explore it, and finally, when doing photography, record it without memory or desire. Once the photo is taken, your mindfulness opens up again to notice something different. During the shoot, the process repeats itself over and over again, with mindfulness providing receptivity to the “big picture” of new visual possibilities, while concentration guides the immersion into the selected subject, culminating in the photograph. Mindfulness is inclusive, concentration is exclusive. If you find yourself being overwhelmed by visual sensations - i.e., too much mindfulness, which can happen to people with acute visual sensitivities – try boosting concentration. If you find yourself slipping into a stupor-like focus on one thing, try returning to mindfulness.

A Camera IS Mindfulness

Photographers who practice mindfulness sometimes say that simply holding a camera can induce this state of awareness. It is a kind of conditioning effect: your mind associates doing photography with mindfulness. 

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August 22, 2021

The Qualities of Mindfulness

Mindfulness is:

  • light, clear, easy, energetic (rather than heavy, ponderous, narrow, picky)
  • reflective, like a mirror or a lake that simply reflects the sky and landscape around it   without analysing or evaluating
  • accepting, without judgment or criticism
  • non-conceptual awareness, without categorizing, labelling, comparing, contrasting
  • pre-verbal awareness, because words and talking are not necessary
  • present-time, “here and now” awareness, and not about the future or past
  • awareness of the flow of life and how everything changes
  • non-egotistic awareness, it’s not about “I, me, mine”.

Some people recommend taking and looking at lots of photographs in order to widen your vision of what photography can be, to develop a heightened sensitivity for recognizing visual possibilities that can be captured with your camera. Without a doubt, mindfulness will draw on your continually expanding reservoir of visual memories. When you're shooting, mindfulness will help you open up to all the possibilities you have seen in your mind's eye. But mindfulness also goes deeper than memory and learned perceptions. In its purest form, it is seeing like you've never seen before.

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June 28, 2021

HOW to CULTIVATE mindfulness

When you're eating, walking, driving, showering, washing dishes, whatever - simply be aware of your surroundings. 

Seemingly boring, mundane things can appear new and fascinating. Notice the light, shadows, colours, textures, and patterns, even if and especially if you don't have your camera. Taking a shot doesn't matter right now. In fact, it could get in the way of mindfulness, especially if you tend to hide behind the camera rather than immerse yourself into the scene, or if you think of the camera as a tool of power, control, purpose, and accomplishment. 

During these everyday activities, just notice and appreciate how light works, without any other thought or expectation that might get in the way of that clear perception. 

Developing mindfulness can be that simple.

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May 17, 2021


 Pure, simple awareness with nothing else added

In Buddhism mindfulness is associated with the word “sati” – one translation of which is “remembering.” We remember the pure, simple, bare awareness we once knew as a child. Photographers will similarly talk about the childlike excitement of wandering through a forest, a junkyard, or an old abandoned house, seeing visual enchantment everywhere. In these situations, when mindfulness blossoms, even the very basic, routine mental mechanisms that filter out unnecessary stimulation and efficiently guide us through everyday living undergo “de-automatization.” It’s a fancy psychological term, but it simply means that we see things we would otherwise ignore because they seem irrelevant to the task at hand. We see things not in terms of their utility or practical, abstract, or even personal meaning. We don’t even see them in terms of colour, tones, shapes, textures, or other visual concepts. We simply see them for what they are.

In photography, mindfulness is like observing something for the first time, even though you may have looked at it a thousand times before. Mindfulness is a deep kind of knowing.

It is a state of mind that is welcoming, receptive, and opening up to the beautiful visual possibilities within the world, as well as to the many dimensions of our mind and soul that enables us to see those possibilities.

Cultivating mindfulness involves “letting go.” Let go of expectations, straining, and rushing. Let go of blocked emotions, because receptiveness to all feelings and sensations allows the eyes to open. Let go of forcing a shot if it’s simply not working out – just move on. Let go of thinking, trying to figure things out, and clinging to or rejecting anything. Accept whatever comes, good or bad. Let go of perfectionism, evaluating yourself, and comparing yourself to others. Be patient with and accept who you are, regardless of your photographic or personal shortcomings. Let go of things that seem to be problems. Resisting only adds energy to them. Instead, embrace them as an opportunity. There is no such thing as “bad” light, subjects, weather, or techniques for shooting. Investigate, explore, experiment with what you see around you. Mindful photography is a “YES” experience in which all aspects of life are affirmed as potential subjects. And after you’ve taken that great shot, linger on the scene for a moment, to appreciate it fully for what it is. Let go of treating the world as visual fodder for your photographic trophies.

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May 03, 2021

What exactly is mindful photography?

Mindfulness by any other name is still mindfulness.

Even though they may not specifically use the word “mindfulness,” many of the great masters talk about photography as awareness of the present moment in which we forget ourselves. We let go of the goals, desires, expectations, techniques, and anxieties that make up who we are in order to more fully immerse ourselves into the experience of seeing. We open up our receptive awareness to what the world offers us. Rather than being some objective observer trying to capture something, we become the being that is in communion with the environment, that is IN the world. We’re not looking for anything in particular. We’re not going anywhere in particular. We’re not expecting or trying to control anything in particular. Instead, we’re wandering, perhaps rather aimlessly, without a goal or purpose. We’re fully and naively open to the possibility of the unexpected, the unique, the moment when things come together… to the flow of life. Under these conditions, when we let go of the self, “it” appears to us. We don’t find and take the picture. The photograph finds us. It takes itself. We unite with the scene not so we can see a shot we want, but rather what the scene offers. The experience comes to us and the photograph is simply the icing on the cake.

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April 20, 2021

Psychology describes language and visualizations as two basic ways our mind manages memories and processes information. Some researchers call them the “verbal” and “mental imagery” systems. Inside our heads we often think with words and carry out all sorts of conversations. While language resides in the left side of the brain, complex visual imagining occurs in the right. These two cognitive systems also point to the two basic ways humans express themselves to others: by creating words and visual images.

The verbal system of the mind

The verbal system tends to involve thinking that is more conceptual, linear, conscious, and factual. Words are abstractions that refer to things that bear little resemblance to the words: The word "tree" doesn't look like a tree. We sequence words into sentences so we can communicate with others. That effort of the verbal system requires considerable conscious control. Because we develop language in order to communicate with others, the verbal system tends to be more concerned with the factual demands of reality that we and others must address.

The mental imagery system

The mental imagery system tends to be more sensory, holistic, fantasy-based, emotional, and personal. Images more easily arouse the senses – not just seeing, obviously, but also the sensations of sound and touch. They contain individual elements that the eye can perceive, but the mind first reacts to the impression of the image as a whole. More so than words, images are the stuff of imagination, fantasy, and symbolism. They more quickly arouse our emotions and personal memories. As dreams show us, they are more easily influenced by the unconscious.

Visualizers compared to verbalizers

Most people rely on both the imagery and verbal systems for cognitive functioning, but researchers have postulated that some people may be better visualizers while others are better verbalizers. This is a useful distinction to keep in mind as a photographer.

Some people are drawn to photography and visual design because they are strong visualizers. They tend to think visually and prefer to express themselves that way. However, their verbal system might not be as fully developed. They might have a hard time talking about images, including their own. They can take wonderful shots without being able to verbalize how they do it or why those photos are so good. They just intuitively sense their visual surroundings and how to capture it effectively.

Other people may be strong verbalizers who love conversation and thinking with words, but they might not understand the visual language of a photograph. They might have a hard time composing a good shot or appreciating one that is shown to them.

Combining the verbal and visual systems

Research indicates that combining the visual and verbal systems is a powerful way to learn. For we photographers, this means improving our skill in understanding visual design, while also improving our ability to talk about images. Learning to verbalize what works and what doesn’t in a photo solidifies our understanding of image creation and leads to new ideas. The bottom line is this: if you learn how to talk to people about your photography, you will most likely improve your photography.

Talking too much and not enough

Of course, an image does not have to be verbally analysed to be appreciated. The powerful psychological effects of some images cannot always be expressed easily in words. When people are overly adamant about not discussing images, they might be feeling a bit inadequate about their poor verbal skills. 

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March 29, 2021

 The first problem in coping with sensory and cognitive overload is recognizing that it’s happening to you. You might not notice it setting in. The effects sometimes take hold at a subconscious level. If you’re feeling energized, focused, happy, and excited while working, you’re probably doing fine. If not, notice how you do feel.

If you conclude that you are indeed suffering from overload, here are some possible solutions:

- Reduce stimulation: If you want or need to keep working, reduce the amount of input coming at you. Stop multitasking, close unnecessary windows on your computer, and do one and only one thing. For example, focus on just one photograph. Slow down, relax and take your time in looking at it. Allow yourself to appreciate it without other distractions or agendas clouding your mind

- Take a break: Stop doing your photography. You might undertake some other activity on the computer in order to alleviate the photography overload - but the odds are that the computer itself, regardless of what you’re doing on it, is the source of the overload problem. So get up and do something else. In some cases a short break might be enough to refresh your mind. In other cases, you might need to stay away from photography for hours, or even days.

- Hear, Smell, Taste, or Get Physical: Most of the time overload in photography will result from excessive visual and verbal stimulation, along with all the cognitive processing associated with images and words. When you take a break, try some OTHER sensory activity. These alternative sensory activities will not only give your overloaded photography-mind a much needed rest, but they can also enrich your experience of photography by processing it in a very different non-visual and non-verbal way, even though you don’t consciously realize it’s happening.

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March 15, 2021

In contemporary digital photography, we continually find ourselves confronting all these forms of overload - a condition we might call "photography overload." Although we might experience it during long and intensive shoots, we’ll probably be more vulnerable when working at the computer and online.

The various symptoms of overload that research describes tend to fall into three general categories:

1. Irritable confusion: Our minds become overwhelmed by all the images and information, leading to distractibility, short attention span, trouble focusing, disorientation, restlessness, hypersensitivity, sleeplessness, fidgeting, irritability, and anger. What we see on our computer screen becomes an annoying mishmash of stuff.

2. Levelling: In the face of so much stimulation, we don’t pay attention to details anymore. We lose our ability at differentiating between this image and that one, between this bit of information and that other bit - especially when the differences are subtle or complex.

3. Shutdown: Our minds and our brains go numb. Feeling indifferent, bored, and tired, we simply can’t respond any more. We shut down and withdraw from all the images and information, probably by leaving the computer.

Next time we will visit how we can remedy the situation we find ourselves in.


March 01, 2021

Historians of photography tell us that the very first permanent photograph was taken in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. It was a shot of a courtyard from an upstairs window at his family’s estate. Despite how blurry, grainy, contrasty, and lacking in detail the image turned out, I’m sure people at the time were fascinated by this amazing gadget called the camera that could record any scene at which you pointed it. In their minds, no doubt, it was pure magic.

Now it’s almost 200 years later. People carry cameras with them every day. We take shots frequently, as a matter of course, without giving it much thought. Everywhere you look, you’ll see photos: hundreds and even thousands of them every day. Many of them are of an extremely high quality compared to that photo taken by Niépce.

If we actually stop to think about it, we will realize how magical photography still is. Unfortunately, most of us don’t. Because we are so bombarded with images, because they fill every niche and cranny of our visual world, we mostly take them for granted. We live in a visually super-saturated world.

The Varieties of Overload Experiences

Even though it’s a relatively new phenomenon in our evolution, researchers have devoted quite a bit of thought to this tendency towards “overload” in the new environments we humans have created for ourselves.

  • Information Overload – When the influx of information exceeds our cognitive abilities to process it, our ability to reason clearly and effectively plummets.
  • Sensory Overload - Also known as sensory over-stimulation, this concept in cognitive psychology describes how high levels of sensations generated by the environment – including images, sounds, smells, and physical sensations - can overwhelm the nervous system and its ability to manage all that input.
  • Cognitive Overload – In cognitive psychology, “cognitive load” refers to the amount of information that working memory can effectively manage during learning and problem-solving. During cognitive overload, working memory is overwhelmed with information, leading to poor performance and even “crashes,” similar to the working memory in a computer.
  • Visual Overload - Excessive complexity and clutter can interfere with how we effectively perceive, process, and make decisions about information in visual environments. If the elements of a scene are not organized well enough - if there is not enough redundancy and predictability to create a sense of order - our minds cannot make sense out of what we see. We don’t perceive specific shapes and meanings, but rather just sameness, clutter, or even chaos.


February 15, 2021

It’s a well-known fact in psychology that if a stimulus persists in the environment, eventually you no longer react to it. The same phenomenon holds true for visual stimuli. You have some beautiful works of art in your home that you don’t even notice any more.

This is called “habituation.” It can significantly affect your eye as you work on a photo in an image editing program. Did you ever spend a great deal of time adjusting the tones and colours of a shot, until you reached a point where you weren’t even sure any more whether the image looked good or not?

The eye adapts and becomes dull. Even when creating a highly manipulated or surreal image, you eventually get used to the exaggerations. It begins to look normal.

If you think you did too much or too little on an image, if you aren’t sure anymore if it looks good or bad, you need to freshen your eye. Do something else for a while. Get up from the computer. It might take a few minutes or a few hours, but if you come back later you might be able to see the image with a rejuvenated point of view.

And so, if you think you might be suffering from a bad case of habituation, apply this Mañana Principle. Sleep on it and take a fresh look at that image tomorrow.


February 02,  2021

Most of us will be happy to see 2020 in the rearview mirror and look to a better future.

With a new year, generally comes those resolutions we all tend to make. In a nutshell, a resolution is only a wish, or a decision made on the emotion. Very few people follow through on their New Year's resolutions. This is evident at the local gym. Notice that the gym is (usually, not this year) crowded on Jan, 1. By now, Feb 1, a lot of the people are cleared out and by April, things are pretty much back to normal.

So, what is the answer? Simple. Make a goal, rather than a wish. A goal needs 3 things.

1. A clear objective that is measurable.

2. The goal needs to be achievable. If it's really big, break it down to smaller goals (milestones).

3. A hard date that you want to achieve the goal by, AKA deadline.

Most importantly, write it down! Put it in a place where you can see it and it will magically motivate you. If you don't write it down, you won't do it. It's a private contact between you and the thing that you want to accomplish.


November 30, 2020

The window to the soul indeed

As an expression of intimacy or aggression, eye contact involves the direct connection of one individual's psyche to another. Simultaneously you see and are seen by the other. You take each other in and size each other up. It’s a direct, no-nonsense meeting of the minds.

The eyes pull us in

That’s why photographs of people gazing right into the camera are so compelling. We can’t help but stare back and try to see right into their psyche to figure out who they are. We can’t resist feeling that we are being pulled into the photograph.


November 25, 2020

When we think of a good image, the words clear, crisp, or sharp might immediately come to mind. After considering the issue just a bit more, we’ll conclude that blur plays an important aesthetic role too. In fact, it might be the blurry parts of an image, and how they interact with the crisp parts, that result in an outstanding picture.

What does "bokeh" mean?

In the mid-1990s this Japanese term was first proposed to photographers. The original Japanese word can be translated to mean blurry, fuzzy, dizzy, or confused. These meanings can be helpful in designing images with compositions that are intended to convey a particular feeling or idea.

Most people who value the concept of bokeh will tell you that the term doesn’t simply refer to the blurry areas of a photo, but rather specifically to the aesthetic qualities of the blur. Bokeh can present amazing tones, colours, patterns, and layering. These aspects of the image create the feeling, the aroma, of a certain kind of light.

There are at least four types of bokeh:

i. Transition Bokeh: The first is transition bokeh. It’s the blur that results as the DoF gradually fades out, when sharp areas transition to being out of focus.

ii. Background Bokeh: The second type is background bokeh. Portrait photographers often use background bokeh.

iii. Foreground Bokeh: However, foreground bokeh is possible too. Some people think it’s too distracting and don’t like it as much as background bokeh. It seems to block the eye’s path to the subject that is in focus. But that’s not necessarily true in all cases. In fact, an eye-catching foreground bokeh might enhance the composition.

You’ll often see images involving an in-focus area that gradually transitions away from us into background bokeh, or one that gradually changes to foreground bokeh as it moves towards us, or one that does both. It’s an interesting effect. The in-focus area seems to resolve from or dissolve into the background or foreground blur, or it emerges from a sandwiched position between the background and foreground bokeh.

iv. Glint Bokeh: The fourth type is glint bokeh. It’s the blurry circles or patches of light from lamps, light bulbs, or small shiny surfaces in the background (and maybe sometimes in the foreground).

Subtlety and Distractiveness

If you want to keep the viewer’s eye on the subject that’s in focus, you might prefer the blur to be gentle and unobtrusive, as do many portrait photographers. If you want the eye to move around the image, or the blur to compete with and even overwhelm the subject, go for bokeh that’s loud. Keep in mind that the human mind usually tries to avoid the uncertainty and ambiguity of blur.

Layering and depth

Background and foreground bokeh can create a feeling of depth and layering. Bokeh can be layered or overlapped onto itself or other areas of bokeh. That also creates the sensation of depth.


Some blurry elements challenge the viewer to figure out what the blur might be. How might that temptation affect the viewer’s attitude about the subject in focus?

Do people prefer bokeh?

It’s interesting how, when given a choice, people often prefer photos, especially portraits, that contain bokeh over those that do not. But that's not how our eyes see the world. Our eyes focus so quickly as they dart around a scene that everything seems to be in focus – unless you stare at something without letting your eyes move, as if you're slipping into a trance or dream-state. Then the background fades and smooths out, as in bokeh, leaving only the subject emerging in sharp clarity. Perhaps that’s what people enjoy, almost on an unconscious level: the trance-like focus on the subject, as the rest of reality dissipates into a dreamy blur.

With Vignette

No Vignette


November 16, 2020

Vignetting is a reduction of an image's clarity at the periphery compared to the centre of the image. It may be gradual or abrupt. Other forms of vignetting include photos with a periphery that fades to white, loses colour saturation, or generally looks “washed-out.” Blur in the corners or along the edges of a photo might also be considered vignetting.

Where does it come from?

A variety of factors contribute to dark vignetting – for example, optical limitations in the lens (especially in toy cameras with cheap lens) and lens hoods, filters and other lens attachments that reduce the angle of view.

Deliberately creating it

For artistic purposes, vignetting might be desirable and even added to a photo that doesn’t have it.

In portraits

Vignetting is often used in portrait photos, usually by creating an oval shape around the subject.

Vignetting as part of human perception

It’s helpful to think about vignetting in terms of the psychology of perception. If the vignetting is symmetrical, it focuses the eye towards the middle of the photo and creates a feeling of centeredness. Sometimes the effect can be quite subtle and not consciously noticed by the viewer. It mimics the cognitive process of concentrating on something while toning down attention to any distractions in the periphery of awareness.

In some respects vignetting mimics the way the eye works. The receptor cells known as “cones” are sensitive to colour and concentrated in the centre of the retina, while the “rods,” which detect light but not colour, are found on the periphery of the retina.

Feelings and ideas created by vignetting

Dark vignetting that is obvious or blatant creates the sensation of "looking in" or “looking out,” as if through a hole, window, or tunnel of some kind. With some subjects the feeling of voyeurism and even peeping might be quite strong.

When vignetting is not symmetrical around the periphery of the image, the off-balance feeling that results can enhance these sensations of a mind gone awry. Asymmetrical vignetting might also serve the more mundane function of focusing the viewer’s eye on an element of the image that is not at the centre, or of providing balance to other elements of the image.

White vignetting similarly helps focus the eye, but its other psychological effects can be quite different than dark vignetting. The image will feel more light, airy, and ethereal, as if in a reverie or dream. For subjects that are uplifting, happy, and joyful, as in wedding photography, white vignetting will usually be more appropriate that dark vignetting, which tends to create a more introspective, moody, or even sinister feeling.

Some people define the word “vignette” as a small, graceful sketch of a scene from a story. This too might be the emotional impact of vignetting in photography. We feel as if we are getting a brief but elegant glimpse into a scene from an ongoing story.


November 09, 2020

Everyone wants to see the world as clearly as possible. People function better that way. We appreciate the details of things. We believe we’re more in touch with the way things truly are. We feel like we see reality more accurately

Why we like sharp

The same attitude applies to photography. In a precisely sharpened image, we notice and appreciate the details of a scene. We may marvel at how closely it depicts reality. Often this is what a precisely sharpened image is all about: how close to reality is it. And if we turn up the sharpness just a bit more than that, the viewer might be captivated by an image that seems to enhance reality beyond the range of normal vision.

Some people love that aspect of photography. Some may even become obsessed with it. They strive for more and more clarity.

Technically speaking, image sharpness involves two different factors:

i. the resolution of the image, which determines how much detail it captures, and

ii. “acutance,” which is how well defined the edges are.

A high resolution image may not necessarily have high acutance, while an image with high acutance may not necessarily have high resolution.

In many ways, sharp is good. It indicates precision, clarity, discernment, a no-nonsense take on things. You notice the details.

The beauty of blur

Of course, good photography doesn’t always mean that images have to be sharp. Wonderful images may be something less than sharp, and sometimes downright blurry. Their beauty rests in the fact that they have a different psychological impact on the viewer than the sharp image. They may be softer, smooth, liquify, tender, and dreamy, suggestive of fantasy and distant or fading memories. They can make us feel dizzy, disoriented, like we’re floating, gliding, spinning, or drunk.

Super sharp

One popular technique in photography is to super-sharpen an image. The human eye is instinctively drawn to high contrasts and edges, so such images immediately grab one’s attention. Things look super-precise, super-real. The lines and textures are so crisp that they shout at us. We are drawn right in, even if it’s a bit painful, maybe because it’s a bit painful.

Texture stimulates the sensation of TOUCH. That makes it one of the most intriguing, even mysterious aspects of photography. It stimulates the sensation of touch. Whereas our sense of vision operates at a distance from the world, the sense of touch brings us up close and personal.

The sensations created by textures are almost endless. Sharp, silky, gritty, bumpy, scratchy. The memories and emotions they stir can be equally varied and subtle.

This is the power of using texture in photography. It can activate very personal, deeply felt experiences. Because textures stimulate tactile sensations, they seem to physically immerse us into the image. It’s a sense of being close to and “feeling” the subject.

Different light sources will draw out different texture qualities:

 Front lighting might emphasize sharp, bold, contrasty textures

 Side lighting creates fine shadows that accentuate detailed textures, as well as the surface qualities of an object’s three-dimensional form.

 Diffuse lighting helps us appreciate the subtle tones of smooth, silky textures.

Sharpening and Blurring

Textures can change subtly or dramatically with different levels of sharpening in photo editing programs. The more you turn it up, the crisper and then bristly the image becomes, in some cases changing the intrinsic nature of the subject.


Textures can also change subtly or dramatically with different levels of blurring. As with sharpening, intense blur can change the inherent nature of the subject.

Experimenting with sharpening and blurring techniques will help sensitive you to the effects of texture.

Textures for Portraits

In portraits the qualities of the texture layer can either enhance the personality characteristics of the subject, or completely change how we perceive the emotions and character of that person.

The dance between texture and image

Depending on the qualities of the texture layer and how it is blended into the photo, the subject might appear to be constructed from that texture, emerging from it, receding into it, struggling with it, yielding to it, conjuring and mastering it, or even overwhelmed by it. The texture and the subject dance with each other, sometimes coming together, sometimes separating, but always forced into the predicament of finding ways to resist and cooperate.


November 03, 2020

Photography is psychology

Why? Because understanding the visual image is understanding the realm in which the psyche of the photographer and viewer intersect. Psychological principles about perception, emotion, creativity, personal identity, interpersonal communication, and human relationships help explain how we create visual images, how we share them, and how people react to what they see.

The Line

After the point, the line is the most basic visual element. It is fundamental to human experience.

The first thing any human drew was a line. It is the basis of all alphabets.

The two basic functions of the line:

i. to create a sense of direction, and

ii. to create a border between two spaces on either side of it.

The eye in humans, wants to follow a visible line. It is biologically programmed, probably for evolutionary survival reasons.

Geometry tells us the line has no width but only length. That kind of line in photography might manifest itself as an edge that has no particular character of its own other than its length and orientation. It serves primarily to mark the division between two areas. Two or more lines interacting form a shape. The outline of the shape tends to be more important to the eye than the individual lines themselves.

Types of lines

When a line in photography attains substantial width, it starts to take on a character of its own: tone, colour, texture. Even without a noticeable width, lines have different shapes and directions, which adds to the variety of their family.

They fall into the following types:

Horizontal, vertical, slightly horizontal, slightly vertical, diagonal, curved/circular, zig-zagging, s-shape, broken, and psychological

Each of these lines has its own unique perceptual and psychological characteristics.


Of all the lines in an image, the s-shaped line is probably the most intriguing.

Unlike other lines, it changes direction: left then right, back and forth, here then there. For that reason it possesses a sense of dimension, rhythm, and vibration that other lines do not. It’s the line that keeps changing its mind, that might become unpredictable.

The speed of its movement may vary. Is it a slow, relaxing, and lazy S, like an old meandering river? Or an energetic almost zig-zagging streak, like a zany rocket out of control.

Whatever the speed, the oscillation of the s-line encourages the eye to notice elements on this side and then on that side. Psychology suggests that eye movements back and forth stimulate new ideas and emotions.

The Diagonal Line

The diagonal line is the line of energy, motion, and triangles.

Unlike the steady vertical or placid horizontal, it’s the line of dynamic energy and motion. It's the relationship of the diagonal line to the frame edges of the image that gives it energy. Something is going up, or coming down.

A diagonal line tends to create triangular shapes as it interacts with the frame, thereby creating the sensation of “three’s.” The number 3 is psychologically powerful, sometimes even mystical.

Diagonals are most interesting when they interact with horizontal lines and an opposing diagonal, which creates complex sets of triangles that may converge on an element in the image, lead the eye in different directions, or create an intricate mosaic and constellation of facets, like crystals. Long diagonals may create big triangles that act as arrows that lead the eye to the corners of the image, which may or may not be a good thing.

The Psychological (versus visual) Plane

There is also a psychological plane, containing psychological lines. Some people call them “transitional lines” or "implied lines." These lines don’t exist in any concrete visual sense, but rather are created by the mind’s eye according to our mental assumptions and expectations about how people and the world work.

Lines of Sight

One type of psychological line, and a powerful one too, is created by eyes and line of sight. Humans are extremely sensitive to the eyes of others and where they are looking. If a subject is looking at some object in the scene of a photograph, we cannot help but sense a psychological line between them. If a person is looking at another person, that line is even stronger because human contact is an incredibly powerful experience for us. If people are looking at each other, that line is so strong that it could easily overpower almost any line in the visual plane, no matter how long, thick, or colourful it is. If the subject is looking at the camera and therefore at both the photographer and us… well, then we emotionally enter the scene via an invisible but very powerful line that extends right out of the world of the image and into our own.

Implied Motion

There are many other types of psychological lines. Body language can create them, like a finger pointing or a head turned. Anything in an image that implies motion has taken place or will take place could create one.

Senders and Receivers

Similar to people looking at each other, these other types of psychological lines tend to be more powerful when there is both a sender and receiver of the action. When a subject is looking out of the frame of an image, we can't help but wonder who or what they are looking at. We search their face for possible clues to this little mystery. We might even sense a triangulated psychological line of connection between us, the subject we're looking at, and the unseen presence that exists outside the image.

Cirrocumulus Clouds

Altocumulus Clouds

Cumulus Clouds

Cirrus Clouds


26 October, 2020

One question every child asks is, “why is the sky blue?” But let’s look at why the sky is red at sunset.

Light from the sun is made up of all the colours of the rainbow. As the sunlight enters the earth’s atmosphere, the short wavelength of blue light is scattered in all directions, more than any of the other colours, causing the sky to be blue during the day.

At sunrise and sunset, the light has further to travel due to the low angle of the sun in the sky. This causes the blue light to be blocked and scattered away, allowing the longer wavelengths or red and yellow to appear in the sky.

I don’t know about you , but I wish there was some magic formula that could tell me exactly the night for photographing a beautiful sunset, or for that matter, which morning is going to produce a stunning sunrise. Unfortunately, nature is not that easy to predict but we can, hopefully, discover some ways to increase our odds.

Let’s take a closer look at some other factors that will help us predict brilliantly coloured skies.

No doubt you have heard the saying “Red sky at night, shepherds delight, red sky in the morning shepherds take warning.” This saying can help you predict sunsets and sunrises if you know the weather forecast. Look for a red sky at sunrise ahead of a storm and at sunset after a storm. Knowing what to expect weather-wise is key to anticipating the right conditions for a shoot, so the first thing you need to do is find a good weather app or website (one that reports on factors such as cloud cover, air quality, humidity and wind speed.

Clouds and Cloud Cover

Clouds are a crucial factor to predicting dramatic sunsets, for without clouds there is not much to see.

On common misconception of brilliant sunsets is that clouds create the colours; in reality clouds only serve as the canvas to display the colours that the light is painting. High to mid-level clouds are the most effective canvases, as they will reflect the colours of the setting sun. Puffy clouds on the horizon at sunset will more than likely not allow the sun rays to pass through them, thus muting the colours. Lower clouds (such as dark rain filled clouds) are not very helpful at reflecting much light.

If the clouds on the horizon are low and thick, the sun will not be able to shine through them. It is also worth noting that too many or too few clouds can be detrimental for an optimal photo, so check out your detailed weather report for cloud cover percentages between 30 and 70 percent at sunset.

You can observe cloud conditions in the afternoon and if the sky looks favourable, you can hope that these clouds will still be present at sunset. No guarantees, but if there is not much wind these clouds may stick around to create a beautiful sunset.

A brief description of fair weather clouds that may produce dramatic sunsets:

 Cirrocumulus clouds – these look like ripples on water with blue sky as the usual backdrop.

 Altocumulus clouds – often occur in sheets or patches with wavy, rounded masses or rolls, like little cotton balls. They are generally white or grey and usually appear after a storm.

 Cumulus clouds – easily recognizable, large, white, and fluffy, often with flat bases.

 Cirrus clouds – generally characterized by thin, wispy strands. These clouds arrive in advance of frontal systems indicating that weather conditions may soon deteriorate. Nevertheless, these are one of the best kind for photographing dramatic sunsets!

Clean Air

Clean air is very effective at scattering the blue light. For this reason, one of the best times for dramatic sunsets is right after a rain or wind storm. While lower clouds rarely reflect brilliant colours note that where the lower atmosphere is especially clean, more vivid colours are allowed to pass through.


The amount of humidity in the air will also have an effect on the colours of your sunset. Lower humidity will produce more vibrant colours. With higher humidity, the colours will be muted because of the water content in the atmosphere. The seasons of autumn and winter typically produce lower humidity than in the warmer seasons.


Wind is a factor that can either enhance or destroy a beautiful sunset. A change in wind direction can cause the clouds to develop ripples or billows, which can create a beautiful effect as the setting sun reflects a nice red glow onto the ripples.

Also, as established earlier, clean air will produce more brilliant colours, and a nice breeze before sunset can help clear the air.

Unfortunately, the wind can become a negative factor on those days when favourable clouds are present in the afternoon, but a weather front moves through with strong winds that remove those clouds and leave you with a clear sky at sunset.

This is another instance when a good weather app or weather website can give you an indication on its radar as to when a front may move through your area.

To summarize your sunset prediction, look for:

Mid to high-level clouds

30 – 70% cloud coverage

Clean air

Lower humidity

Calm winds

A final thought to consider when photographing sunsets – somethimes the afterglow of the sunset, which can occur 15 – 20 minutes after the sun goes behind the horizon, can be much more spectacular than the actual sunset.

Generally, all these weather-related rules also apply to photographing sunrises, but the visual signs are more difficult to spot since it is darkest before the dawn. A good time to photograph at sunrise is in autumn and winter when it occurs later in the day than in the summer months.


19 October 2020

We all have different goals when it comes to our passion for photography. Getting better at our craft is definitely something that most of us strive for. A great way to get better is to explore your own creativity by working on personal and professional photography projects. Personal photography projects are excellent for a variety of reasons. Since these are for the most part not client-driven, there tends to be less pressure to be perfect and more freedom to be creative.

Just like anything else in life, having a routine provides a sense of organization. Figure out what you want to focus on from a personal photography project, pick your best time to photograph, and then stick to that routine.


In my opinion, the hardest part of finding a personal project is deciding what project to pursue. You know the proverbial “What do I photograph?” question.


A wabi-sabi method requires a slower, quieter approach to life. The concept is very similar to Japanese Zen gardens that promote tranquility and calmness. Slow down and quiet your mind. When you apply this to your personal photography projects there seems to be somewhat of an ease from the pressures of perfection. You stop chasing that next award-winning frame for just a few minutes and instead open your eyes to all that is around you: Stop, look, feel, and then click. This will make each frame more meaningful and help you convey the story better once you understand what is unfolding around you.


As I mentioned earlier, self-assigned photo projects can really help you grow as a photographer and an artist. Even if you do the same work for your clients and your personal projects, the fact that you are doing more and more of something brings forth many opportunities for growth and learning. You can experiment with new techniques, with new gear, with new ways of composing images, and with new ways of editing. Regardless, use your personal projects to push yourself to improve.

Regardless of the ‘why’ and ‘what’ of personal photography projects, one thing is certain. At times when you are in a funk and cannot find your groove, having a space and an opportunity to create without an agenda is exactly what you need to get your groove back.


05 October 2020


The term “Decisive Moment” was coined by some of the original street photographers. The term means two things: clicking the shutter at the moment of peak action, which in turn creates maximum emotional impact.

So, the Decisive Moment is really about timing and anticipation.

This is one of those aspects of photography that you can read about and study, but you will never master unless you’re out shooting.

The technical quality of a photograph is always secondary to the emotional quality. Get your shot first, and then worry about the details.

This is key to the Decisive Moment because in order to get the shot at all, you must anticipate and be ready.

The Decisive Moment is about capturing peak action. That doesn’t necessarily mean that something fast is happening.

When you set about trying to use the Decisive Moment to instil emotion into your photography, train yourself to think about “what could happen” not just “what is happening”.


28 September 2020


Humans have an emotional attachment to colour. Blue tends to make us think of cold or night. Red indicates danger, heat, or love. Every colour of the spectrum generates a reaction inside our head.

How can you put that knowledge to use?

1. You can keep your eyes open for colours that convey a certain mood.

2. You can introduce props of a certain colour to influence emotions.

3. You can manipulate colour in-camera through the use of filters or colour balance settings.

4. You can manipulate colour in post-production.


As you probably know, composition is the road map to your image. It tells your viewer where to travel within the photograph, and where to stop. Stopping points are where emotional responses are going to occur. You want these stopping points to literally hit your point home!

There are many rules and tools of composition that accomplish the same thing: guide your viewer.

Using composition to create emotion will often utilize other techniques as well as to

help boost the message.

Shape and contrast are important tools of composition that are often overlooked.

Always keep your eyes open for ways to instil emotion - without being overly obvious.


21 September 2020

Infusing emotion is a key element to a successful photograph.  Here we continue our discussion...


Point-of-view is probably the simplest method available to you when trying to establish emotion. Why is that? Because, you control it completely - your POV is uniquely yours.

Photographers often don’t explore this unique tool as thoroughly as they should.

So, how do you establish a point-of-view? And how does that point-of-view determine an emotional reaction?

First, let’s look at “how you establish a point of view”.

  • Your choice of lenses vastly affects the POV of a scene.
  • Your choice of positioning the camera affects the POV.
  • Your choice of positioning the subject also affects the POV.

If you don’t know much about lenses, keep these points in mind.

  • A telephoto lens compresses distance and spatial relationships
  • A wide-angle lens expands distance and pushes elements apart

Many photographers, myself included, tend to photograph subjects from eye level. Unfortunately, that is rarely the best angle to infuse an emotional reaction into a photograph.

When choosing an unusual angle for the camera, it can be extreme. Often times, however, even a slight movement on the part of camera placement can add emotion and drama.

Choosing an emotional POV doesn’t necessarily have to be ultra-dramatic. You don’t have to hang off of a cliff or wade chest deep into a pond, sometimes it’s just about eliminating unnecessary details until you have focused in on the true story being told in the photograph.

One last word on POV – CLOSE-UP. Remember to get close. People love seeing details in a photograph. Details can create strong emotions. Sure, there is a place for the wide-angle image. But most photographers have more of a problem going too wide, rather than too close.


13 September 2020

When we create a photograph, what is the primary outcome that we all seek? We want people to see, and remember, our images!

When we post our photos to Flickr, 500px, Instagram or Facebook, we don’t want people glancing at our photos in passing and then moving on. We want our viewers to really stop, and closely examine our work.

One of the main attributes that contribute to a photograph getting noticed is the infusion of emotional content.

When a viewer is emoted, that “feeling” is embedded in their memory and it causes them to pause. Even if that pause is only for a second, the infused emotional aspect of your photograph has done its job.

It doesn’t have to be a positive emotion. It can be anything from happiness to sadness, or amazement to anger.

Infusing emotion is a key element to a successful photograph.


Lighting can create an emotional response. In general, broad, open even lighting presents a positive mood. In reverse, direct, contrasting, pinpoint, shadowed lighting creates suspense, drama or concern.

You should study the light that is available to you when you are ready to shoot an image and use it to enhance the mood that you wish to convey.

When attempting to use light as your emotional grabbing tool, bear in mind the following:

  • You can attempt to manipulate the angle of the light to the subject to create drama
  • You can choose a time of day to attain a certain type of light ··
  • You can use filters on your camera to alter what the existing light looks like
  • You can manipulate the lighting in post-production software to create a mood


07 September 2020

An image editing program such as Photoshop can seem pretty complex and bewildering. It certainly is if you try to take it all on board at once. I began by dealing with one stage of controlling an image at a time and learning the basic steps needed to achieve the result I wanted.

It really doesn’t matter if you don’t know all the short-cut commands – the important thing is to be able to see in your mind’s eye the image you want to achieve, and to understand what changes are required to bring it closer to this. The most important aspect of digital photography is not how adept you are at using a computer, or how knowledgeable you are about the technology, but how effective the end result is.


31 August 2020

Building a composite image from a number of different elements has fascinated many photographers since the very early days.

The numerous ways in which images can be combined when dealing with pixels are simply astonishing, allowing a photographer to express their ideas almost without limit.

This is perhaps the aspect of digital imaging that provides the greatest freedom for personal expression and offers the most intriguing challenge to the imagination, as well as revealing a new way to recognize the possibilities when taking photos.


As my interest in this genre of photography has grown, I now make it a habit to look for objects or details that might be useful in the future as an element in a composite image.

Things with interesting shapes are particularly useful, and if they are clearly defined against a contrasting plain background it is a relatively easy matter to select them.


Sometimes an image seems to evolve: I have an idea, and when I begin to work on the elements a new direction suggests itself.


Some of the best composite work is done by those with a strong sense of design who have the ability to visualize and plan their images. This is perhaps the most satisfying way of creating composite images, as the individual elements can be photographed especially for the purpose. In this way, objects can be made much easier to select by photographing them against a plain contrasting background, and it is possible to make sure that qualities such as lighting and perspective are common to all the images involved.


One of the most difficult effects to achieve convincingly when creating composite images is to make the result seem like a straight forward photograph. Once you set out to deceive in this way, there are so many potential factors that can give the game away: discrepancies between lighting direction and quality, for example, or maybe inconsistencies in the perspective of objects, as well as the relative sharpness and the depth of field of different elements in an image. Achieving a believable result becomes more viable if the images you combine have a genuine unifying factor.


One way of beginning the process of creating a multiple image is to give yourself a brief. Imagine that you are working with an art director who needs an image for a specific purpose. It often needs something like this to stimulate your creativity and can lead you to developing ideas in ways you may not otherwise have considered.


24 August 2020

I am by no means averse to having fun with my photography and some of the effects which imaging software allows you to create fall into this category. But techniques discovered and learned in this context will not be wasted as they can often give rise to many other possibilities and can help you to develop ideas and establish a personal style.


Image editing software like Photoshop, Luminar and ACDSee makes double exposures and similar techniques much easier and more controllable to perform than ever before and can also extend them in ways that are hard to visualize until you become aware of the possibilities. One of the most important and flexible aspects of creating images in this way is the ability to blend two or more separate layers in a huge variety of ways.

Technical note: As with many image editing facilities, there is almost always more than one way of creating the same or a very similar effect, or of refining the one you have achieved. When working with Blending Modes or Layer Options you can also try varying the hue, saturation, contrast, brightness and opacity of the individual layers to give further control over the final effect.


Blending layers can be another effective way of using filter effects, and it also provides a very controllable way of creating images with a more painterly or graphic quality. The Layers Options control can be a powerful tool when dealing with multiple layers.


It is usually a combination of effects which produces the most interesting results, but only when they are applied to the right subject – this applies particularly to effects filters.

The best way of using these effects is as an enhancer or to exaggerate a quality that already exists within the photograph, instead of simply imposing the effect on it.


There are numerous techniques and filters that can be used to modify a digital image, often beyond recognition. Some of these are contained within software programs, and many can be bought as plug-ins. Although it might seem at first that there are thousands of possible effects, many of these are simply variations on the same theme and are often so crude and unattractive that it is difficult to visualise how they might be used to produce a pleasing image. But sometimes they can be applied in ways that emphasize a particular quality in an image, or that can be modified by blending layers in order to create quite interesting variations on an image.